Understanding Urban Cooling - Energy Consumption Input

Hello there!

I do have trouble understanding how the urban cooling valuation model concerning the Energy_Consumption works and what exactly the input should be.

The input needed is energy consumption per building type, in kW/degC.

I get that in order to come to a value that has the unit of kW/deg_C , you first go look into the Santamouris & al. paper in order to find out the plus in electricity need per plus of degree celsius ambient temperature for your region of interest.

Let’s say that would be a plus of 10%.

Now that we know the plus in energy need, we need the energy consumption per building type.

So first of all, I am wondering why the documentation says kW and not kWh? Considering kW is power while kWh is energy?

Now, altough it is possible to find data about average energy need per building type at least for some types (such as residential), it is quite imprecise and really hard to find when it comes to industry, where floor space varies greatly, so how can we just have one single number for all the buildings of a giant category such as f.ex. industry? So I suppose kWh/m^2/building type is the most sensible input? But then again, the calculation would be missing every floor space that is not ground floor, considering it only works with the footprint…

Anyway, let’s suppose now that residential buildings use 200 kWh/m^2 and industry uses 300 kWh/m^2.

Would this be what the type and consumption columns should look like?

Type____________ Consumption

Residential_______ 0.1x200 kWh/deg_C

Industry_________0.1x300 kWh/deg_C

Or am I totally miss understanding something?
As I do understand that the model calculates energy use per building on a pixel basis (Therefore needs a precise footprint shp. file) but I am not sure if the input should be energy use per square meter, or something different, as it is never really specified in the documentation.

Thank you for your help.

Hi @Michael, thanks for posting! I’ve reached out to our science staff for the model who may be able to provide some insight here.

James

Hi!

Thank you, that would help a lot.

For now, I thought maybe a better way to get a single energy use number / building type is looking at the total energy need of a sector (f.ex. offices) for a region and then dividing that kWh number trough the number of buildings tagged as office in that region (f.ex. in Open Street map).
This would give then a kWh/building number…?

Hopefully somebody can elaborate on these thoughts.

Thank you.

Hi @Michael,

Thank you for posting these questions about the Energy Consumption Table that is needed as an input to run the valuation component of the Urban Cooling InVEST model.

You correctly point out that consumption values ought to be in units of kWh/degC (as kWh is a measure of energy and kW measures power). We have now made this change in the User Guide based on your observation and apologize for any confusion the incorrectly listed unit caused you. Users like yourself are essential to our software development and we always appreciate feedback to help us improve models and documentation.

This model is not sophisticated enough to distinguish energy consumption levels between different floors of a building, and instead applies a single value to all buildings of each specific type. The values in your table should not be per m^2 necessarily, but simply kWh/degC; the amount of energy needed to raise the temperate of X building type by one degC.

Please see the image below of an example table. Notice the order of magnitude is in the 100s of kWh/degC.

I hope this is helpful and that I’ve answered your questions. If not, please do reply with your unresolved concerns. Again, thanks for bringing the User Guide’s incorrectly listed unit to our attention and accept our apologies for the confusion.

-Jesse
GIS Analyst | Natural Capital Project

Hi Jesse,

thanks a lot for the answer, and no worries, the kWh error did not cause me any concerns.

Thank you for clearing my question up and providing an example table.
I guess it is now clear that kWh/m^2 is not the way to go and, if these numbers are used, they should be upscaled to the building level. By doing so with the numbers I gave in the above example, you do arrive in the 150’ish kWh/*C range, which seems fitting considering your table.

Thanks!