Hello，When calculating the degree of degradation Dxj , the formula （4-3） normalizes the weights, but does not normalize the threat of all grid cell y to the grid cell x, so I think the Dxj may be greater than 1. But in the final output, the degree of degradation in the degradation score map is less than 1.

So I hope someone can explain this question to me.

Thank you for the attempt.

# Dxj of Habitat Quality

Hello there! As you note, the threat weights are normalized to sum to one, while the sum of threats to any given pixel could potentially exceed one. Whether you observe any pixels in the resulting habitat degradation output (deg_sum_out_c) that are greater than 1 depends on the spatial configuration of threats, their weights, and the threat-specific decay functions. So that may be why you are not observing any cumulative degradation scores above 1. Please let me know if there’s anything I can clarify further!