What is considered non-point source pollution in the NDR model?

I would like to ask you, what are the non-point source pollution of the INVEST NDR Model?Does it include livestock and poultry industry?


Thank you for your question about the NDR model.

Examples of non-point source pollution that are relevant to the model include fertilizers applied in agriculture and/or residential areas. Depending on the type of operation, pollutants from the livestock and poultry industry could also be considered non-point source by the same logic, especially with “free-range” grazing over large areas. Runoff is generally associated with non-point source pollution, as water is emptied into streams or rivers after accumulating contaminants from sources like gardens, parking lots, construction sites, or rangeland. But, depending on the resolution of your data and the practices employed, such operations may be considered point sources if, for instance, a factory farm keeps all the animals inside a facility and discharges all their effluent from a single pipe into a stream or river system.

I hope that’s helpful.